Michael Freeman

In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Mayor, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Michelle Witty

Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism. In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental or social changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Health, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Frank Johns

Fire Chief (or Chief Fire Officer in England and Wales; or Fire Master in Scotland) is a top executive rank or commanding officer in a fire department (either elected or appointed) who is responsible for carrying out the day-to-day tasks of running a firefighting organization. Such tasks include supervising other officers and firefighters at an emergency scene and recruiting, training, and equipping them for their respective duties. Depending upon local needs and organization, the Chief may also be involved in fire prevention, fire inspection, disaster preparedness, emergency medical services, and related disciplines, as well as administrative duties such as budgets and personnel issues, research into safety and regulations, and liaison with other agencies.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Fire chief, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

William Green

A chief of police, also known as police chief or sometimes shortened to just chief, is the title typically given to the top official in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America. Alternate titles for this position include police commissioner, colonel (in the Rhode Island State Police), police superintendent, police president, and chief constable. In contrast to a sheriff (who is generally elected by the voters of a county, except in the states of Rhode Island and Hawaii), a chief of police is usually a municipal employee who owes his allegiance to a city or town. Some states have both an appointed and an elected chief of police (Louisiana). In some jurisdictions the head of the police commission is the leader of the police and holds a position analogous or similar to the one described here, in this case he is referred to as commissioner. The New York City Police Department has both a police commissioner and a chief, formerly called the chief inspector, now called the chief of department. In Louisiana, a chief of police may serve as the chief of police, marshal, and constable of a city. The fraternal organization International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) is an organization that many chiefs of police are associated with.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Chief of police, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Dianna Smith

A tax collector or a taxman is a person who collects unpaid taxes from other people or corporations. Tax collectors are often portrayed in fiction as being evil, and in the modern world share a similar stereotype to that of lawyers.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Tax collector, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Mary Renick

A clerk is a senior official of many municipal governments in the English-speaking world. In some communities, the position is elected, but in many others, the clerk is appointed to their post. In almost all cases, the actual title of the clerk reflects the type of municipality he or she works for, thus, instead of simply being known as the clerk, the position is generally referred to as the town clerk, township clerk, city clerk, village clerk, borough clerk, board secretary, or county clerk. Other titles also exist. The office has existed for centuries, though in some places it is now being merged with other positions.

The duties of a municipal clerk vary even more than their titles. Particularly in the United States, it is difficult to fully describe a clerk’s duties, because there are hundreds of different jobs a clerk may fulfill. In some U.S. states, there are provisions in the state constitutions delineating the clerk’s duties, but in other states, each municipality decides for itself what role the clerk plays, or even, if there need be a clerk at all.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Municipal clerk, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Michaele Upton

Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships. The American Marketing Association has defined marketing as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”

Marketing is used to create the customer, to keep the customer and to satisfy the customer. With the customer as the focus of its activities, it can be concluded that Marketing is one of the premier components of Business Management – the other being Innovation. Other services and management activities such as Operations (or Production), Human Resources, Accounting, Law and Legal aspects can be “bought in” or “contracted out”.

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Marketing, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.